The term "anarchism" designates a set of heterogenous political practices and theories which reject all forms of domination in the organization of societies. The abolition of private property and the state (which holds a monopoly on authority) are fundamental ambitions for the aim to restructure egalitarian socio-economic relations. Historically, anarchist movements took place between the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, with a particularly marked preeminence of anarcho-syndicalism on an international level.

Although philosophical sensibilities and theoretical formalizations of anarchism have often been developed in European contexts, their fertility in countries of the Global South does not manifest their pragmatic force as much as their compatibility with precapitalist practices on the fringes of colonialism. In twentieth century Latin America, libertarian groups of workers, peasants and students were inspired by the collective practices of indigenous populations, which prolonged pre-Hispanic traditions of agrarian and communal organization despite extractivism led by monarchical and republican state structures throughout four centuries.

Anarchism is compatible with the diversity of projects developed from experiences and expectations situated in countries of the Global South: from Mexican indigenous neo-Zapatism to the Kurdish resistance, it conveys nowadays struggles for the liberation of women (Anarcha-feminism) and environmentalist aspirations.